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Accounts receivable financing (AR financing), or invoice factoring, is a business financing option that some small companies pursue to help fund day-to-day operations or business growth. AR financing has a lower level of risk than some alternative small business loans. This financing option can be a good fit for business owners who are more comfortable playing it safe when it comes to money.
To understand accounts receivable financing, it’s important to first grasp “accounts receivable”. Accounts receivable means a company’s outstanding invoices or the money their customers owe. The term signifies that a business has a right to receive payment from its clients’ accounts because it has delivered a product or service. Basically, the business has extended a line of credit to its client. This gives the client a set amount of time to produce payment. For example, if a clothing manufacturer orders $1,000 of fabric from a textile company, instead of requiring upfront payment, the textile company might extend terms and invoice the clothing manufacturer for the $1,000, giving them 30 days to pay (i.e. “Net 30” payment terms). That $1,000 is considered part of the textile company’s accounts receivable over the period during which it is waiting for payment.
Invoice factoring is a financing arrangement in which a company uses its accounts receivable as collateral. An AR financing company (also known as a factoring company) essentially buys a business’ outstanding invoices at a discount (usually about 70 to 90 percent of the total) and then collects on the invoices. Once the factoring company collects on the invoices, it pays the business the remainder of the total minus a factoring fee. The benefit to the business is immediate cash. The benefit to the factoring company is that it makes money on fees.
Before applying for AR financing, you’ll need to determine how much money you need and which invoices you’ll finance. Some companies choose only to factor the invoices of customers that take longer to pay. Others factor them all, and others will factor just what they need for a specific purchase. Decide what your goal is upfront.
Though the documentation you’ll need to apply for invoice factoring will vary based on state and local requirements, you will definitely need to provide your accounts receivable/payable aging report. This document should detail the status of at least 90 days’ worth of your business’ invoices. The factoring company will use this to verify your customers and the amount they owe you. They will also likely run a credit check on them to evaluate the difficulty of securing payment. Additionally, the factoring company will probably request sample invoices from your business for assessment.
Finally, you’ll need to complete the factoring company’s application paperwork. Most of the time, you can accomplish this online. You’ll typically hear back within a day or two with an offer. The process is comparatively quick and simple. So, you can take your time to review your options, shop around, and find the best factoring match for your needs.
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Factoring companies consider a number of things when determining the rate at which to procure a business’ invoices. Money that large corporations owe is typically more valuable than money that small businesses owe. There’s more value in new invoices than there are in old ones. Pricing really boils down to how difficult the factoring company thinks it will be to collect on the invoices. Essentially, the harder the work, the lower the amount it is willing to pay upfront. The factoring company will generally offer around 85 percent of the total value of the invoices. However, it can range from about 70 to 90 percent.
The factoring company holds the remaining percentage of the total invoices until they’re able to collect on them. Before paying the difference, the factoring company will charge a processing fee (about 3 percent). They’ll also charge a factor fee based on how long it took to collect on that invoice. Usually, they withdraw fee is weekly and amounts to about 1 percent of the total invoice.
Companies use AR financing for a variety of reasons. However, the funding method often works best for urgent situations when a business needs cash flow financing to fill a gap immediately or to take advantage of an opportunity. For example, an ice cream company that does most of its business in the warmer months might need to use invoice factoring to meet payroll on time in January when orders are slow. Or, a bakery might find a great deal on a used commercial oven on Craigslist and need extra cash as soon as possible to snatch it up before a competitor does.
Some businesses do choose to use AR financing on a more regular basis to establish a stable, predictable cash flow. Though it involves fees, the cost is worth it for some small businesses. This method allows business owners to focus on core competencies like product development and business growth rather than expending resources on invoice collections. In fact, some companies do away with an accounts receivable department entirely in lieu of invoice factoring.
Invoice factoring can also be right for a company that needs cash to invest in the business, but doesn’t qualify for traditional loans or just doesn’t have the resources to devote to the typically lengthy loan application process. AR financing is also a good option for businesses that are risk-averse. This is because this financing option involves money it’s already made rather than money it hopes to make in the future.
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